Communications Equipment Operators

Increases in productivity have long been associated with increases in compensation for employees. For several decades beginning in the 1940s, productivity had risen in tandem with employees’ compensation. However, since the 1970s, productivity and compensation have steadily diverged.This trend, which will be referred to as the “productivity–compensation gap,” has received much scrutiny from both academics and policymakers alike.

Although research on the productivity–compensation gap has existed for some time, most work in this field has been conducted at the total confirm business sector or similar aggregate level.However, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) publishes a wealth of detailed industry-level labor productivity and compensation data. Industry data can be used to look at this topic from a fresh perspective in order to see what is driving trends in the broader economy. This article studies underlying trends over the 1987–2015 period in 183 industries that are driving some of the widening gap between labor productivity and compensation observed in the conform business sector. Most of the industries studied had increases in both labor productivity and compensation over the period studied; however, compensation lagged behind productivity in most cases.…

Development and Testing of a Two-UAV Communication Relay System

Numerous researches have been performed in UAV communication relay scheme. In the conceptual study of UAV based military communication relays, Pinckney et al. described a multi-year airborne communication range extension program plan which was primarily used to support the Battlefield Information Transmission System. The main objective of the program was to provide the beyond line of sight (BLOS) communications capabilities without the help of scarce satellite resources. Their range of coverage can vary from 50 to 100 miles for UAVs of interest. Rangel et al.  developed a multipurpose aerial platform using a UAV for tactical surveillance of maritime vessels. They concluded that the communication relay using a UAV system is a low-cost application which could provide air dominance with satisfied communication range with lost cost resources. In Orphans et al.  the use of the self-organizing paradigm to design efficient UAV relay networks to support military operations was proposed.
Abundant previous studies have focused on the algorithms for vehicle position assignment and network configuration. Choi et al.  developed guidance laws to optimize the position of a Micro-UAV which relayed communication and video signals when the other UAV is out of radio contact range with the base. Zhan et al. investigated a communication system in which UAVs were used as relays between ground terminals and a network base station. Their work mainly focused on developing the algorithm for optimizing the performance of the relay system. In , Cetin and coworkers proposed a novel dynamic approach to the relay chain concept to maintain communication between vehicles in the long-range communication relay infrastructure. Their path planning method was based on the artificial potential field.

Audio, Visual, and physical Signals

Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception.